Plagiarism Software Unveils a New Source for 11 of Shakespeare’s Plays 抄襲偵測軟體 揭露莎翁靈感來源

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讀紐時學英文
2018/03/09 第206期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

編輯小語 Plagiarism Software Unveils a New Source for 11 of Shakespeare’s Plays 抄襲偵測軟體 揭露莎翁靈感來源
The Globalization of the National Book Awards 美國家圖書獎 擁抱全球

編輯小語
 

Plagiarism Software Unveils a New Source for 11 of Shakespeare’s Plays 抄襲偵測軟體 揭露莎翁靈感來源
文/Michael Blanding
譯/李京倫

For years scholars have debated what inspired William Shakespeare’s writings. Now, with the help of software typically used by professors to nab cheating students, two writers have discovered an unpublished manuscript they believe the Bard of Avon consulted to write “King Lear,” “Macbeth,” “Richard III,” “Henry V” and seven other plays.

The findings were made by Dennis McCarthy and June Schlueter, who describe them in a book published this month by the academic press D.S. Brewer and the British Library. The authors are not suggesting that Shakespeare plagiarized but rather that he read and was inspired by a manuscript titled “A Brief Discourse of Rebellion and Rebels,” written in the late 1500s by George North, a minor figure in the court of Queen Elizabeth.

多年以來,學者對莎士比亞創作靈感的來源時有議論。如今,拜教授常用以揪出抄襲學生的軟體之賜,兩名作者發現了一份未曾發表的手稿,而且他們認為,有「雅芬河畔的吟遊詩人」之稱的莎翁在創作「李爾王」、「馬克白」、「理查三世」、「亨利五世」和另七部戲本時,應該都參考了這份手稿。

麥卡錫和許魯特在二月問世的書中描述這個發現,此書由學術出版社「D.S.布魯爾」和大英圖書館出版。作者未指莎士比亞剽竊,而是認為他讀過這份題為「叛亂與叛亂者簡論」的手稿並受到啟發。手稿寫於16世紀晚期,作者是英格蘭與愛爾蘭女王伊麗莎白一世宮廷裡一個不太重要的人物喬治.諾斯。

In reviewing the book before it was published, David Bevington, professor emeritus in the humanities at the University of Chicago and editor of “The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (7th Edition),” called it “a revelation” for the sheer number of correlations with the plays.

McCarthy used decidedly modern techniques to marshal his evidence, employing WCopyfind, an open-source plagiarism software, which picked out common words and phrases in the manuscript and the plays.

貝文頓是美國芝加哥大學人文學名譽教授,也是「莎士比亞全集(第七版)」的主編,他在此書出版前寫了書評指出,書中列出這份手稿與莎翁劇作相關之處多到驚人,堪稱「一大發現」。

麥卡錫用全然現代的技術搜集匯整他的證據,用了一款名叫WCopyfind的開放原始碼抄襲偵測軟體,這款軟體能搜索出這份手稿和莎翁劇作裡共同的字和詞組。

In the dedication to his manuscript, for example, North urges those who might see themselves as ugly to strive to be inwardly beautiful, to defy nature. He uses a succession of words to make the argument, including “proportion,” “glass,” “feature,” “fair,” “deformed,” “world,” “shadow” and “nature.” In the opening soliloquy of Richard III (“Now is the winter of our discontent …”) the hunchbacked tyrant uses the same words in virtually the same order to come to the opposite conclusion: that since he is outwardly ugly, he will act the villain he appears to be.

In another passage, North uses six terms for dogs, from the noble mastiff to the lowly cur and “trundle-tail,” to argue that just as dogs exist in a natural hierarchy, so do humans. Shakespeare uses essentially the same list of dogs to make similar points in “King Lear” and “Macbeth.”

例如,在手稿的獻詞中,諾斯勉勵自覺其貌不揚者努力追求內在美,莫向自然低頭。他用了一連串的詞來表達論點,包括「勻稱」、「鏡」、「容貌」、「美麗」、「畸形」、「世界」、「陰影」和「性情」。在「理查三世」開場獨白裡(第一句就是著名的「現在我們嚴冬般的宿怨,或譯為我們隱忍難堪的嚴冬…」),這個駝背暴君用了相同的一些詞,而且先後次序幾無二致,不過他得到了相反的結論:既然長相醜陋如惡棍,索性行為亦然。

在另一個段落裡,諾斯用了六個詞指稱狗,從高貴的獒犬到卑微的惡犬再到「卷尾毛」,主張就像狗天生就有貴賤之分,人類也是一樣。莎士比亞在「李爾王」和「馬克白」中,用了幾乎一樣的六個詞來指稱狗,並陳述類似的主張。

In 1576, North was living at Kirtling Hall near Cambridge, England, the estate of Baron Roger North. It was here, McCarthy says, that he wrote his manuscript.

The manuscript is a diatribe against rebels, arguing that all rebellions against a monarch are unjust and doomed to fail. While Shakespeare had a more ambiguous position on rebellion, McCarthy said he clearly mined North’s treatise for themes and characters.

1576年時,諾斯住在英格蘭劍橋郡附近、羅傑.諾斯男爵的柯特陵莊園。麥卡錫說,諾斯就是在這裡寫出這份手稿。

這份手稿抨擊了叛亂者,主張所有對君王的叛亂均屬不義,且注定失敗。麥卡錫說,雖然莎士比亞對叛亂的態度比較曖昧,但他在構思主題和人物時,顯然借用了諾斯的論述。

 

說文解字看新聞

16世紀劇作家莎士比亞是西方文藝史上最傑出的作家之一,在英格蘭集市城鎮「雅芬河畔史特拉福鎮」出生長大。他並非憑一己之力編織出所有劇作的情節,有時採用古老的故事,有時借用年代較近的義大利作家(如薄伽丘)的故事,家喻戶曉的故事(如羅密歐與茱麗葉Romeo and Juliet、無事生非Much Ado About Nothing)和罕為人知的(如奥賽羅Othello)都有。創作歷史劇時,以羅馬史為題材的他大多參考諾思翻譯的「希臘羅馬名人傳」,以英格蘭史為題材的大多參考何林塞與霍爾的編年史。

本文說的是兩名研究者使用抄襲偵測軟體,發現莎士比亞的靈感來源很可能是一本未曾出版的手稿。他們發現,莎翁戲本多個段落的關鍵字用字順序,與手稿幾乎一樣。紐時用了「參考」(consult)和「提取」(mine,開採的引申義)描述莎翁的手法。

其實,研究者進一步發現,在手稿和「理查三世」開場獨白裡,文中提到的八個關鍵字「緊密並列」(tight juxtaposition),諾斯在手稿中的77個字內用上這八個字,莎翁在理查三世92個字內用上,研究者搜尋了包含六萬多本早期英格蘭書籍的資料庫,沒有一本在連續200個字內用上同樣這八個字,研究者說,莎翁碰巧(by chance)這麼做的可能性微乎其微。

文/李京倫

 

The Globalization of the National Book Awards 美國家圖書獎 擁抱全球
文/Alexandra Alter
譯/李京倫

The National Book Awards, among the most prestigious literary prizes, are going global.

Starting this year, the National Book Foundation will recognize works in translation, opening up a distinctly American literary award to writers working in other languages. The new category marks a radical departure for awards, which began in 1950 “to celebrate the best of American literature.”

最受尊崇的文學獎之一,美國國家圖書獎,正走向全世界。

今年起,美國圖書基金會將認可翻譯作品,把這個顯然屬於美國文學的獎向以其他語文創作者開放。這個新類別標誌著這個獎發生了劇烈的轉變,這個獎自1950年開始頒發起,就「旨在表揚美國文學作品之最」。

The prize will be given jointly to authors and translators, and will be limited to fiction and nonfiction works by living authors that are published in the United States. International authors who write in English will not be eligible.

The decision to recognize international authors was made unanimously by the foundation’s board of directors, in an effort to draw attention to works in translation, which are often neglected by U.S. readers and publishers.

新獎項將由作者和譯者共同獲得,並僅限於仍在世的作者在美國出版的小說和非小說作品。外國作者用英文寫成的作品將不符資格。

認可外國作者的決定由基金會董事會全體成員一致做出,以喚起對翻譯作品的注意,這些作品常為美國讀者和出版社所忽略。

“This is an opportunity for us to influence how visible books in translation are,” said Lisa Lucas, the executive director of the National Book Foundation. “The less we know about the rest of the world, the worse off we are.”

While there are a growing number of publishing houses that specialize in publishing works in translation and international literature — including Europa Editions, Archipelago Books, AmazonCrossing and Tilted Axis, which publishes contemporary Asian literature, mainly by women — translated literature still accounts for a tiny percentage of books published in the United States. And although international authors like Elena Ferrante, Haruki Murakami, Karl Ove Knausgaard and Han Kang have been embraced by American readers, there is still a lingering perception that translated literature does not sell well in the U.S.

美國圖書基金會執行長麗莎.盧卡斯說:「這是我們影響翻譯作品能見度的機會。我們對世界其他部分了解得越少,對我們越不利。」

雖然美國專門出版譯作和外國文學作品的出版社越來越多,包括歐羅巴出版社、群島出版社、亞馬遜橫渡、傾斜軸(出版當代亞洲文學書籍,主要是女性作品)等,翻譯作品在美國出版市場仍只占極小部分。儘管如義大利艾琳娜.斐蘭德、日本村上春樹、挪威諾斯加德、南韓韓江等外國作者已深獲美國讀者喜愛,人們卻仍舊以為翻譯文學在美國銷路不佳。

It is not the first time the National Book Awards has broadened its scope. In the 1960s and 1970s, an array of new categories were added, including prizes in science, philosophy and religion, history and biography, arts and letters, contemporary thought, autobiography, first novel, original paperback and children’s books, as well as a prize for translation. Then, in 1986, the organization scaled back drastically, to just two awards, for fiction and nonfiction. It later added poetry and young people’s literature.

The new translation prize marks the first time the foundation has added a category in more than two decades.

Other literary institutions have also made efforts to highlight works in translation. The PEN American Center has given out a translation prize to highlight international works since the 1960s.

這並非美國國家圖書獎首次增加獎項。1960與1970年代,主辦單位給這個獎增加一系列新類別,包括科學、哲學與宗教、歷史與傳記、藝術與文學、當代思潮、自傳、處女作小說、原創平裝本、童書,以及翻譯獎。到了1986年,主辦單位將獎項大砍到只剩小說和非小說兩個獎。後來增加了詩和少年文學。

這次新增翻譯作品獎,是基金會20多年來首次增加新類別。

其他文學機構也在努力凸顯翻譯作品。美國筆會中心從1960年代起就頒發翻譯作品獎,以表揚外國作品。

 

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